1 Peter #3: A BETTER HOPE

When we experience hardship, we begin to see that this life is not strong enough, durable enough, to hold all of our hopes and desires. We see that ultimately, disappointment is the result of all things here and now. There is nothing on earth that we cannot lose. But we cannot lose our eternal inheritance in Jesus Christ.

To listen to the sermon, click the play button: To download, right click on the link (or do whatever you do on a Mac) and save it to your computer: Download 1 Peter Part 3

1 Peter #3. 1 Peter 1:3-5.

Peter gives us a great example when he begins by praising God. Our salvation is a gift that we can often take for granted. But Peter reminds us that God’s grace to us is not automatic. God did not have to treat us with mercy and grace. What he has done for us is astounding, even more so because not a person in the world has ever deserved any of it. All of what comes to us is according to God’s mercy. It is not by justice, not by us earning it, not by us paying for it, not by another human getting it for us. God’s mercy alone gives us the incredible gift of salvation. Mercy is never deserved. We don’t deserve anything from God other than death and hell. But in spite of what we deserve, he forgives us, and instead showers his gifts on us.

It may be puzzling to some that he blesses “The God, and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.” But this is phrase that packs a lot of punch in just a few words. Remember, Peter has already mentioned the Trinity: The Father, the Holy Spirit and Jesus, the Son. Here in one short sentence, we have the Trinity once again. Peter is obviously blessing God the Father,  who chose us to be in Jesus, and knew ahead of time what would take place. He also blesses “our Lord Jesus.” To call Jesus “Lord” is to call him God. In the Old Testament times, the ancient name for God was “Yahweh.” But instead of saying “Yahweh,” the Jews said “the Lord.” So calling Jesus “Lord” is like calling him “Yahweh.” Finally, Jesus is not only Lord, he is also “Christ.” Christ means “anointed one,” or, to put it more clearly, “one especially filled with the Holy Spirit.” So we have here Father, Son and Holy Spirit in this one short phrase.

In God’s mercy, he has caused us to be born again. In Greek it says literally: “according to his great mercy, he has regenerated us.” (Regenerated is often translated “given us new birth” or something similar). To generate something is to cause it to be. So, God caused us to be physically, but he has also regenerated us – caused to be all over again, in a new way.

Think abut a computer game. In a computer game, you are alive outside the game. You enter the world of the game through your game character, sometimes called your “avatar.” When your character/avatar dies in the game, it regenerates and comes back into the game at the last point in which you were saved. This gives us a helpful way to think about spiritual regeneration.

In some ways, game regeneration is almost the opposite real spiritual regeneration. Imagine that we are players who have existed only inside the game. We aren’t outside the world, sitting at a console, playing a game. Instead, we have only ever been inside the game. The game is our whole world. We have no perspective outside of it.

Now, when God regenerates us, it is like he gives us a life outside of the game. Instead of a player who is alive in the real world, stepping into the world of the game, and being regenerated inside the game, we begin inside the game, and God now regenerates us out into the real world. We are still in the game, but now we are also outside, sitting at a gaming console. We are no longer confined to the game. If we die in the game, we still have our life outside of it.

Our regeneration takes place in the real, eternal world, not the temporary world of the game, which is the only world we have known up until now. Now, our life inside the game – what we have always called “real life” – is not our only life, and it is not our most true life. Before, when we died, we died. But now, when we die, our “avatar” – that is, our body of flesh – is dead. We don’t get a do-over. But since we now have life outside the game, when we die here, it’s like shutting down the game, and participating in real life. What happens “in the game” is important, because here, in this life, God uses us to show his glory. But what happens outside the game is ultimately more important, because that is where our real life is waiting for us.

Obviously this regeneration is not (yet) a physical one. However, it will eventually result in a new physical body

20 But in fact, Christ has been raised from the dead. He is the first of a great harvest of all who have died.
21 So you see, just as death came into the world through a man, now the resurrection from the dead has begun through another man. 22 Just as everyone dies because we all belong to Adam, everyone who belongs to Christ will be given new life. 23 But there is an order to this resurrection: Christ was raised as the first of the harvest; then all who belong to Christ will be raised when he comes back. (1 Corinthians 15:20-23, NLT)

In the meantime, however, we have already been born again, in spirit. The Greek verb for “regenerated,” is in a special type of past tense form. This shows us that this has already happened. Being born again is not something that will happen to us in the future. It is not something that is still in process. It has already taken place. In addition, while it is a done deal, our regeneration has ongoing consequences.

There are many types of things that happened in the past, which, however, have ongoing consequences. Picture a wedding that took place ten years ago. The wedding is in the past. It happened; it’s a done deal. But the fact that the wedding happened in the past has a profound and ongoing effect today upon the two people who got married. Once you have a wedding, you are fully married. Yet, as you grow with your spouse, that marriage changes and deepens and affects you more deeply. It affects every day of your life, though some days the effect seems greater, and other days, less.

So it is with being born again. Because God regenerated us once, in the past, we are still  regenerated (born again) today. The fact of our being born again continues to play out in our lives. We are growing more and more fully into everything that it means to regenerated. Some days we see the effect more clearly, other days we question how much being born again has changed our life in the body. But it would be a mistake to think that we are only partially born again. Just as you can’t be “partially married,” so you can’t be partially born again.

Some days you may feel like you are doing well in your marriage. Other days you may feel like a lousy husband, or neglectful wife. Your feelings about how things are going do not change the fact that you are married. You can be a better or worse husband or wife, but you can’t get divorced without knowing it. So too, your feelings about how well you are manifesting the new life of Jesus do not determine whether or not you are born again. You might be a better or worse Christian on any given day, but you are born again because of God’s merciful choice, not your own performance. You aren’t more born again when you feel holy, and you aren’t less born again when you feel like a sinner.

Again, it may help to keep in mind that this regeneration takes place in our Spirit. Our bodies have not been born again, that’s obvious. But the rebirth of our spirit can now influence our soul, and then our mind, and then affect how we live in these mortal bodies into the Lord gives us new bodies that are also regenerated.

This becomes clear as Peter goes on. Our rebirth is through the resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is connected to the eternal life-force of Jesus, a life that has proven itself to be indestructible (Hebrews 7:16). Because we have been born again through the resurrection of Jesus, because we are born in again in the eternal spirit, we have a new kind of inheritance. This our life “outside the game,” a life which has already begun, but one which we cannot fully enter until we are done with the game.

Inheritance is a good way to picture all of the wonderful things we have through Jesus Christ. An inheritance is something that belongs to you. It is yours. And yet, you cannot fully receive all of your inheritance until there is a death. So it is with us. Our inheritance in Jesus belongs to us. It is certainly and assuredly ours. But we cannot step into the fullness of that inheritance until a death happens. In our case, it is two deaths: first, the death of Jesus Christ obtained the inheritance for us, and second, we wait for the death of our flesh, which is corrupted by sin, and keeps us from fully experiencing all that Jesus has given us.

Peter tells us that our inheritance is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading. Imperishable means that it cannot be destroyed, it cannot decay or degrade. This isn’t  a stock portfolio that might lose some of its value. It is not  a warehouse full of goods that could burn or be destroyed in a flood. Even cash can lose some of its value through inflation. However, this inheritance will be there for us, guaranteed. There is nothing to be had on earth that we could not possibly lose at some point. In fact, age and death determine that we will lose all earthly things. But we cannot lose this gift, this inheritance held for us by God. It is the only thing we cannot lose.

Second, it  is undefiled. That is, it can’t be spoiled or corrupted. Sometimes, we are capable of spoiling a good thing for ourselves. At other times, someone else might ruin a perfect moment for us. However it occurs, something that once seemed so beautiful and perfect can often become crass, crude, or even just ordinary and no longer interesting or exciting. This will not happen to our inheritance in Jesus. It cannot happen. That is one reason we need new bodies before we can enter the New Creation. We need to be incorruptible, because the New Creation will not be corrupted. Jesus has already made us incorruptible in our regenerated spirits. He will make us that way in soul and body as well. Another aspect of incorruptible is this: There is nothing on earth that we can desire fully, heart and soul, without somehow making it into an idol, and therefore spoiling it. We might love our children so much that it consumes us, and in loving them more than God, we corrupt the beauty of parental love. We may desire marriage so much that it becomes more important than God, and thus we corrupt something that might otherwise be good. But in the New Creation, we can embrace our desires with no reservation. Nothing will spoil it. We can desire our incorruptible inheritance with our whole hearts. It won’t be spoiled, or made into an idol.

Finally, our inheritance will never fade away. We can’t use it so much that it wears out, because it will never wear out. It’s not like a favorite piece of clothing that slowly fades over time as you wash it, or that stops feeling new by the fourth time you wear it. The joy of newness that we will experience on the first day in the New Creation will never wear out. Every day will feel like the first day. Every time we see some beautiful scenery in the New Creation, it will be as delightful as it was the very first time. Every conversation we have with an old friend will feel like the first time we talked that way. Nothing will ever feel “old.” Nothing will ever lessen in delight, or lose its luster, even if we indulge that exact delight every day for a thousand years. It doesn’t become worn out with use or repetition.

This amazing inheritance, says Peter, is kept in heaven for us. The word “kept” indicates a kind of watchfulness, a guarding. It’s in the bank. Nothing will happen to it. It’s safe for us.

We too are being guarded, by God’s power, through faith. The word “guarded” or “protected” (verse 5) here is the word for military garrison. It is as if God has deployed a cohort of warriors to surround you and protect you. It would be appropriate here to think about both God’s power in general, and also his power in deploying angels to protect us.

The phrase “through faith” shows us our own one small part in all of this: we must trust the words of scripture. This is what God says. It is ours as we trust it to be true. We take hold of it through trust. Thanksgiving, of course, is a terrific way to make it tangible to our own souls and minds. Finally, this inheritance, as we know, will be full revealed and fully ours when we die. Our present mortal bodies are perishable. They do decay, they are corrupt, and every joy, every beauty that we can experience in these bodies ultimately fades and comes to nothing. That is why we cannot receive the inheritance until the last times, the moment when God lets the old creation self-destruct, and brings in the New Creation, and gives us new, incorruptible bodies which will have the capacity to receive and enjoy our amazing inheritance.

This is our hope. I love that Peter begins the letter with this. He is writing to people who are experiencing many trials and struggles – the very next verse explains that. When we experience hardship, we begin to see that this life is not strong enough, durable enough, to hold all of our hopes and desires. We see that ultimately, disappointment is the result of all things here and now. So, knowing that his readers are faced with deep struggles and bitter disappointment, Peter reminds them of a hope that will never disappoint, never let them down.

Too often, I look for hope in this life. I’m reminded of a quote by the late Christian teacher, Larry Crabb:

“I’m troubled by how unquestioningly we live out our determination to make this life work. All our hopes for happiness are bound up in it. It’s as if we believe this is the only world we ever plan to inhabit.”

Larry Crabb

 But everything I could hope for in this life will let me down at some point. Peter reminds me that one of the first tasks of faith is to set my hope upon the inheritance that cannot be destroyed, that never spoils, never loses its newness and wonderfulness, an inheritance that is kept specifically for me, even as I am guarded by faith.

What about you?

1 PETER #2: AWAY FROM HOME

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When we belong to Jesus, our entire identity is shaped by Him, and Him alone. Our identity has nothing to do with our earthly country, or our ethnicity, or our sexual desires. Instead, we are defined by God: chosen by the Father’s foreknowledge, set apart by the Spirit with the sacrifice of Jesus applied to our lives for obedience to His Word. We are no longer at home in this world, but instead, we are strangers, passing through, longing for our true and eternal home.

To listen to the sermon, click the play button: To download, right click on the link (or do whatever you do on a Mac) and save it to your computer: Download 1 Peter Part 2

Sometimes, when Paul begins his letters, he feels the need to say a little something about his calling or experience. That’s understandable, since Paul, unlike the other apostles, did not personally know Jesus. His calling as an apostle was unusual, different from the calling of the others. Peter, however, feels no need to elaborate about his calling. He is Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ. That’s enough for him.

I want us to notice two things about this. First, Peter could have taken this opportunity to build himself up a bit. He could have said, “Simon-Peter, who walked on the water with our Lord,” or, “Peter, the first to declare that Jesus is the Christ, the son of God,” or “the disciple who was on the mount of transfiguration with our Lord.” But even as Peter ends this letter by explicitly teaching us to be humble, he begins it by demonstrating what humility actually looks like. For all his claims to fame in the Christian world, he offers us only the name that Jesus gave him (Peter, rather than his birth-name, Simon) and the fact that he is an apostle of Jesus.

Second, I do want to mention the fact that at this point in his life, he has quit using the name given to him by his parents, and uses only the name given to him by Jesus. He has allowed Jesus to define him so completely that he identifies himself in only the way that Jesus identifies him. It doesn’t matter that for all of his life up into adulthood, he had a different name. The only thing that matters now is how Jesus thinks of him, and Jesus thinks of him as “Peter,” or, in Greek, “The Rock.” He has accepted the way Jesus sees him as the only genuine way to see himself. By the way, when Jesus named Peter, he invented a name that was not in existence beforehand. There is no record of anyone being named “Peter” prior to that point.

Peter addresses the letter to the “elect exiles, the dispersion.” I mentioned briefly in the introduction that there is a little bit of dispute among commentators about whether Peter addresses the letter primarily to Jews, or to non-Jews (called Gentiles) or to both. One reason some think it was primarily to Jewish readers is because Peter mentions “the dispersion.” Sometimes, that word (in the form of “Diaspora”) was used by Jews to describe any Jewish people who lived outside of the Holy Land, which was considered to be their true home, even if they had never been there. But there are several points in this letter that seem to be speaking to non-Jews also. I raise this point because I don’t want us to sort of think, “Oh, this is just for Jewish Christians.” That, in fact, was an attitude condemned by all of the apostles. In Jesus, Jewishness, or non-Jewishness, are non-issues. In Christ, all are one, whatever their origin. So this letter is for all Christians, of any ethnic background.

I want us to consider what it means when Peter calls his readers “elect exiles, the dispersion,” because those words were written not only for Christians living 2,000 years ago in Turkey, they were also written for us. Scripture is very clear that since we belong to Jesus, this world is no longer our home. Like the Jewish dispersion (diaspora), we are living outside of our true homeland, and the place we live at the moment will never be our true home. Peter will elaborate on this several times in this letter, as do other New Testament writers:

By faith [Abraham] stayed as a foreigner in the land of promise, living in tents as did Isaac and Jacob, coheirs of the same promise. For he was looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose architect and builder is God. (Hebrews 11:9-10, CSB)
These all died in faith, although they had not received the things that were promised. But they saw them from a distance, greeted them, and confessed that they were foreigners and temporary residents on the earth. Now those who say such things make it clear that they are seeking a homeland. If they were thinking about where they came from, they would have had an opportunity to return. But they now desire a better place—a heavenly one. Therefore, God is not ashamed to be called their God, for he has prepared a city for them. (Hebrews 11:13-16, CSB)
Our citizenship is in heaven, and we eagerly wait for a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ. (Philippians 3:20 CSB)

Scripture is clear: our real citizenship is in eternity with the Lord. Our real homeland is someplace to which we have not yet traveled. If we belong to Jesus, then on earth, no matter where we live, we are not at home. We are foreigners, aliens, temporary residents.

I don’t think it is a sin to be patriotic about the country in which we are citizens. However, I do think it is a sin to be more patriotic about your earthly country than you are about your heavenly home. I admit, it is easier for me because of my childhood, but that doesn’t change this truth: we are more truly fellow citizens with Christians around the world than we are with non-Christian people who belong to our earthly country. So, for example, a Chinese Christian is more truly my fellow-citizen than an American who is not a Christian. In addition, both the Chinese Christian and I are not truly at home anywhere in this world. Like Abraham in the verses above, we belong to a country we have never seen, yet we long for it.

This is a reflection of a deeper truth: Jesus Christ fundamentally alters who we are. Our primary identity is now “belonging to Jesus Christ,” and that identity is more important than any other part of who we are. To say it another way, the fact that we belong to Jesus matters more than anything else. And the fact that we belong to Jesus means that we no longer wholly belong to this world. Jesus said that his kingdom is not of this world (John 18:36). If we belong to him, then we too, do not belong fully in this world.

This should be good news. I know for myself, I am often uncomfortable in this world. I don’t fit in. The things are that are important to the world are often not a big deal to me. The things that I care about are sometimes despised, mocked, or even hated by the world. Also, as I get older, I realize more and more that the things I really long for cannot be found in this life. I will never, in this life, truly have everything I deeply desire.

All of this can feel lonely sometimes. It can feel like maybe you are crazy, or stupid, not to just go along with everyone else. You may feel foolish to have such deep longings for things that will never come to pass, sometimes longings you cannot even fully describe. But Peter’s opening words remind us that we do have a home, and we do truly belong somewhere. It just isn’t here. We are travelers, temporary residents waiting until we finally get the chance to travel to our permanent home. It is there, in our permanent home, that all of our longings can be finally and completely fulfilled.

Peter says that his readers are strangers in this world, chosen “according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in connection with the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience and sprinkling with his blood to Jesus Christ.”

Let’s unpack this a little bit. Peter mentions here the Father, the Spirit and the Son. The Father, Spirit and Son are all one being, which we call God. God is made up of three persons, but not three beings.

 We can imagine something that is like a person, but somehow less than a human person. Our pets are like this. They are like us, but they are not quite actual people. They don’t have the same sense of self-awareness or sentience that human beings have, and they have other limitations. Now, just as pets are like persons, but somehow less-than, so God is  a person, but is morethan a human person. We are all mono-persons. I am Tom, and Tom is just one person/one being. But God is a “three-person being,” which is more than a mono-person. If God is in fact God, we should expect him to be more than us, exponentially more. We do not mean that there are three Gods. There is only one being, called God. But that being is a three-person, rather than a mono-person.

The three persons of God are part of the same being, which means that that each person shares the power, honor and glory of God. But the three persons, though the same being, are not the same person. They each have different roles. The Father does unique things, and so does the Spirit, and the Son. Peter here describes some of the uniqueness of the three persons.

God the Father knows all – past, present and future. His foreknowledge was involved somehow in the fact that we have been chosen to belong to Jesus and become citizens of God’s kingdom, strangers in this world. The bible does not describe in detail exactly how God’s foreknowledge relates to our being chosen, only that it does, in some way.

The person of the Spirit is involved in our sanctification. In case your head is still hurting from my pathetic attempt to describe the Trinity, let’s at least make “sanctification,” easier to understand. To “sanctify” something is to make it holy. When something is holy, or “sanctified,” it is special, no longer ordinary. One silly example might come from clothes. I think most of you readers live in places where you can afford more than one outfit of clothing. When that is the case, usually people have “everyday” clothes and then also “fancy” clothes. We don’t use our fancy clothes very often. Usually they are more expensive than other clothes We save them for a special occasion. I would never clean a toilet in my suit and tie. My suit and tie are reserved for times when I want to feel exceptionally uncomfortable. No, sorry, that ruins the analogy. Let me try again: My suit and tie are reserved for special occasions, like when I perform a wedding ceremony, or when I want to take Kari on a very special date. They are set-apart from other clothes, special, and I wear them to communicate that the occasion is very important.

So, God has set us aside. We are not like all people. The Holy Spirit has chosen us to be special to God, precious to him, important to Him. We are no longer ordinary. This is not something we have done for ourselves, so there is no cause for us to be arrogant or smug about it. There is no cause for us to judge anyone else, because God chose us for his own reasons, not because of anything we have done, or even who we are. It is his choice that makes us special, and that is not our doing.

Now, isn’t everyone special and precious in God’s eyes? In this day and age, it sounds like blasphemy to say “no.” But the answer is no, in a technical sense. God would make everyone who has ever existed into his holy people (1 Timothy 2:3-5). However,  not everyone wants to be his holy people. Many, many, many people instead reject his salvation. Jesus himself said:

13 “You can enter God’s Kingdom only through the narrow gate. The highway to hell is broad, and its gate is wide for the many who choose that way. 14 But the gateway to life is very narrow and the road is difficult, and only a few ever find it. (Matthew 7:13-14, NLT)

One of the major themes of the book of Revelation is that God offers salvation again and again to the people of this world. Over and over he gives people a chance to repent. But over and over, most people reject God’s terms, insisting on their own way instead. The Father, in his fore-knowledge saw who the Spirit would make holy, and who would not.

Getting back to the business of being set-apart, and special (that is, sanctified) we can see why we are strangers and exiles in this world. When so many people reject God’s salvation, then we who are set apart by God look like weirdos. Jesus told us that since the world hated him, we should expect it to hate us also.

18 “If the world hates you, remember that it hated me first. 19 The world would love you as one of its own if you belonged to it, but you are no longer part of the world. I chose you to come out of the world, so it hates you. 20 Do you remember what I told you? ‘A slave is not greater than the master.’ Since they persecuted me, naturally they will persecute you. And if they had listened to me, they would listen to you. 21 They will do all this to you because of me, for they have rejected the one who sent me. 22 They would not be guilty if I had not come and spoken to them. But now they have no excuse for their sin. 23 Anyone who hates me also hates my Father. (John 15:18-23, NLT)

The foreknowledge of the Father, and the sanctifying work of the Spirit (setting us apart) lead to two additional things: our obedience, and us being “sprinkled with the blood of Jesus.”

Let’s take the blood sprinkling first. If you have grown up in church, this might not even register, but it sounds kind of gross and shocking if you hear it for the first time. In ancient Israel, when animals were sacrificed to represent the seriousness of sin, some of the blood of the animal was sprinkled. This sprinkling of the blood in a sense “applied” the sacrifice to people. So what Peter means by “sprinkling of the blood” is that the sacrifice that Jesus made has been applied to our hearts and lives.

We all know what obedience is. What I want to point out is that our obedience is the result of being chosen and sanctified, and comes as the sacrifice of Jesus is applied to our souls. It is not the cause of salvation, but the result of salvation.

Let’s take a few moments to apply these words to our lives. We are strangers and aliens in this world precisely because we have been chosen and set apart for obedience and forgiveness. Although it can feel lonely and scary when the whole world looks down on us for following Jesus, our differentness is, in fact, a reminder that God is saving us. It can actually become a comfort to us.

Maybe we need to remember that we are holy (that is set apart) not because of anything within ourselves, but rather because God foreknew and chose us. Again that should be a comfort, because I know that I don’t have, within myself, what it takes to become holy. I don’t need to. God has already done it.

Perhaps we need to be reminded that we have been sprinkled by the blood of Jesus. His sacrifice has been applied to your life. Now, if we can get out of our own way, we can let Him live a life of obedience through us.

Another possible application is to take the example of Peter, who let Jesus change his name, and was content to be defined entirely by the fact that he belonged to Jesus. We can resist the temptation to pursue an “identity” as a person with this or that ethnic background. We can stand out from our culture, and stop seeking identity in being part of a group of victims or minorities or being a person with certain minority sexual desires. The only identity we should seek is as a chosen one of God, a foreigner here on earth, but a citizen of His kingdom.

1 Peter #1: A LETTER FOR HARD TIMES

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This time we look at the history and setting surrounding the New Testament book of 1 Peter.

To listen to the sermon, click the play button: To download, right click on the link (or do whatever you do on a Mac) and save it to your computer: Download 1 Peter Part 1

1 Peter #1. Introduction

We are starting a new series, today, on the first letter of Peter. I am not utterly against doing topical sermon series’, but I’d like to encourage you to think a little differently about that. As we look at First Peter, the text will introduce a number of different topics. When we do things like that, then I am not deciding which topics to preach about. Instead, the text of the Bible tells us which topics to consider. So, this is a topical series, in a sense. It is just that the bible itself will determine the topics.

Peter wrote only two letters that have survived. We will be looking at the first of these. I’ll take this opportunity to give a reminder about how the New Testament came to be. In addition to the New Testament, we have some of the writings of Christians who lived immediately after the time of the apostles, as well as writings of later Christians, down through the centuries. All of the books of the New Testament are mentioned, referenced and/or quoted from the time of the very earliest writings of Christians. So, for example, the first generation of Christians after the apostles mention 1 Peter, and quote from it. Of course, later generations do as well.

About two hundred and fifty years after the time of the apostles, when Christianity became legal in the Roman empire, a large body of leaders, representing most Christians in the world at that time, gathered together. Among other things, they compared notes about which writings were clearly from the apostles (or others who knew Jesus, like Luke and Mark). To be included in the “canon” (later called the Bible) a document had to have evidence that it was considered genuine since that first generation of Christians, as evidenced by early Christian writings. In addition, it had to be recognized by virtually all Christians in the world at that time as having been used by churches for the previous two-hundred and fifty years. So, if a book was only used, for example, in Alexandria, Egypt, but nowhere else in the world, it would not have been considered a true part of the New Testament. Or, if one group claimed a book was written by an apostle, but no other Christian traditions had a record of it, it was not included.

It is quite clear that very early on, all Christians were aware of 1 Peter, and considered it to be genuine, and were using it to encourage one another in following Jesus. In other words, it is a genuine part of the New Testament, as are all of the books in our modern Bibles.

As is true of many of the books of the New Testament, we have a very good idea of exactly when and where Peter wrote this letter. At the end of the letter, at 5:13, Peter writes:

13 She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings, and so does Mark, my son. (1 Peter 5:13, ESV)

“Babylon,” is almost certainly a code-name for Rome. Well before the birth of Jesus, the literal Babylon in Mesopotamia was in ruins. The majority of those living within its ancient walls were goats and their herders. There is no evidence that Peter or Mark ever went there, and there would be no reason for them to do so, seeing as there were almost no people remaining there. However, in the Roman Empire, persecution was beginning to become more and more of a reality, as the words of this letter will show us. Probably less than a year after Peter wrote, the Emperor Nero instigated a vicious persecution against Christians in Rome, in which Peter himself was killed. I’m sure Peter could tell that things were getting more and more dangerous. If his letter was intercepted by the government, it would have been disastrous if he explicitly mentioned a Christian church in Rome. So, Peter uses the word “Babylon,” which Christians would have understood to mean “a great city that is opposed to the people of God;” or, in other words: Rome. “She, who is likewise chosen” means, of course, the church. So, to make it plain, Peter means: “The church in Rome sends you greetings.” In keeping with the dangerous times, he mentions only two personal names, Mark, and Silvanus. To name others would be too risky.

Mark is also known as John-Mark, the cousin of Barnabas, and sometime companion of Paul. Most scholars believe that he spent several years also with the apostle Peter. He wrote the gospel of Mark.

Mark would have been quite young when Jesus was crucified – possibly a teenager – but he was probably one of those in the larger group of Jesus’ followers; some people think he was the young man who ran away naked at the garden of Gethsemane (Mark 14:51-52).  In any case, one of the house churches in Jerusalem met at his mother’s home (Acts 12:12), and he would have known Peter for most of his life. Much of Mark’s gospel is likely based upon the stories and teachings of Jesus that Mark learned from Peter.

I mention Mark, because his presence with Peter in Rome helps us set the date for 1 Peter. Mark was in Rome with Paul when Paul wrote Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon. If Peter had been there then, Paul surely would have mentioned it. So Peter cannot have been in Rome, nor written his letter before Paul wrote those letters, which would have been AD 62 at the latest. I would guess that Paul left Rome in 62, traveled in Asia minor, and then returned to Rome, probably at about the same time Peter arrived there, either late AD 63 or early in 64. After a brief reunion, Paul traveled on to Spain, while Peter stayed in Rome, along with Mark and Silvanus (also called Silas). Peter wrote his first letter after Paul left, or he, for his part, surely would have mentioned Paul’s presence with him. A few months later, Peter wrote his second letter.

In any case, we know that in July of 64, the city of Rome burned, and the emperor Nero used that as an excuse to start a horrifying persecution of Christians. He blamed Christians for the fire, and it is possible that he executed some Christians by burning them alive in his palace gardens as human torches. Whether or not that last is true, he most certainly sought to kill Christians and destroy the church. At some point during Nero’s persecution, Peter was found and executed. Tradition has it that he was crucified upside down, though I have my doubts about how that actually works. There is no doubt, however, that Peter perished in Nero’s persecution. Many people think that Paul returned to Rome during this time, and was also killed by Nero.

Peter addresses his letter to Christians in a number of different Roman provinces (Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia). All of these are found in modern-day Turkey, and cover the northern three-quarters of that country. Some commentators think that Peter was writing mainly to Jewish Christians, but the text of the letter makes it clear that he was writing to both Jewish and non-Jewish (Gentile) Christians. In fact, it is likely that the Gentile believers outnumbered the Jewish believers in those areas.

The Christians in those areas were living in uncertain times. Christianity was already getting noticed by the Roman authorities, and the emperor Nero was increasingly unfriendly to it. The rest of the empire took their cue from the emperor. Although the recipients of the letter were probably not persecuted as brutally as the church in Rome (until about thirty years later), it was clear that Christians were not welcome in the general culture of the world at the time. In addition, Peter was writing to people who were experiencing struggles and difficulties of all different types, including things that didn’t have much to do with persecution. In short, 1 Peter is a book written to Christians who were facing hard times. As such, I think its message is very encouraging to us today.

For the rest of this sermon I want you to read the entire book of 1 Peter in one sitting. It isn’t long. Or listen to it, as I read it on the recording above, here at clearbible.blog. I think it is often helpful to start a book by reading the whole thing at once, so we can see how one part flows into another. Without further ado, let’s do it.